Currency Most coins presently are made of a base metal , and their value comes from their status as fiat money. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat law , and thus is determined by the free market only in as much as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets. Thus, these coins are monetary tokens , just as paper currency is: Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be “true coins” see below. Thus, there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value. Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation , as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar nominally containing slightly less than a tenth, quarter, half, and full ounce of silver, respectively , US nickel , and pre US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny. Since mid , United States pennies are made of Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins cause coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content.
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The capacities given are for a single light rail car; a two-car train has double the capacity. Commuter rail WES [ edit ] Main article: WES Commuter Rail The commuter rail line between Beaverton and Wilsonville is operated primarily with trains made up from a fleet of four Colorado Railcar Aero diesel multiple unit railcars. The system has buses and a daily ridership of about 65, Fares outside the Square are 35 cents. Zone 2 was a ring around Zone 1 out two to three more miles.
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History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.
The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery. Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations.
They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn’t until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item. In recent years batteries have changed out of all recognition.
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We take a look at his fascinating story and reveal what’s next for the year-old entrepreneur. Auden and the composer Benjamin Britten. But Alec died when James was nine years old, having been treated for throat and lung cancer for three years.
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However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments. Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e. K and discretionary e. Nor the evils of the worldwide Islamic Inquisition which — not in the 16th century but now, in the 21st, condemns Muslim apostates to barbaric execution.
Instead, aggressive White androphobes of all genders which I can no longer count are decimating the philogynous and egalitarian West. Equality psychos are tearing down the most egalitarian society that ever existed except for initial communist experiments, before they turned bloody. American Jews, at the apex of the greatest fortune and philosemitic tolerance their long diaspora has ever bestowed on their kind, are busy supporting all the ideologies and policies that demolish their safe harbor and build up their Muslim, Black and Third World enemies.
Missing the big picture: How Japan Post’s $6.5 billion bet on Toll unravelled
Their client had just closed a multi-billion dollar deal – but had kept them firmly out of the loop. Nic Walker “My heart skipped a beat when I read the Nikkei newspaper that morning,” said one banker who worked on the deal. Japan Post acknowledged concerns over the due diligence process and its management of the company, but blamed the writedown on worse-than-expected economic pressures. Advertisement “During the acquisition, due diligence was implemented taking into account the opinion of accounting, taxation, legal and financial experts,” said Hideo Murata, a spokesman for Japan Post.
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Conrad was convicted of manslaughter for the bludgeoning death of his former cellmate, Michael McNett. Conrad hit McNett at least 27 times on the head, chest and neck with a claw hammer. He was scheduled for release in Cox murdered fellow inmate Mark Dean Davis, 31, by stabbing him in the back with a homemade tool. Cox was convicted of aggravated murder and sentenced to death. Hayes, 26, hitting him in the head and arm. Hayes was hospitalized in serious condition and was later upgraded to fair condition.
Lee pled guilty to attempted aggravated murder, assault and robbery and was sentenced to 20 years in prison. In the space of two days, Gallegos was a suspect in a robbery and an attempted murder and in the random shooting of a man waiting for the MAX train. He engaged police in a gun battle and was killed. After he completed a domestic violence program, the charges against him were dropped. His former wife, Sharon, had a restraining order against him which had just expired. Arthur Chapparo murdered his ex-wife, Sharon Chapparo, 44 and a mother of two, and murdered her boyfriend, Preston Ray Russell, 36 and a father of three.
He then killed himself.
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Sort posts by 4: The All Ordinaries Index dropped 44 points, or 0. The Australian dollar traded at US Unlike the US sharemarket, which has started the month of October by notching fresh record highs, the ASX is struggling to stay within the trading range it has been trapped in since the middle of May. Investors are worried about the prospect of higher interest rates coupled with lacklustre earnings growth as an economy burdened with debt-laden consumers and low wage growth struggles to make headway.
Retailers, both discretionary and non-discretionary, were under pressure on Wednesday, with Myer down 3.
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Archive Here is a collection of over descriptions of the parts of the steam locomotive compiled to assist locomotive enthusiasts to further their knowledge of the most remarkable mechanical machine ever created by man. Although it is based on UK practice and design, it has much of interest to world wide readers and it includes some historical notes about the development of the steam locomotive.
The weight on the driving wheels is particularly helpful in this respect. For a locomotive with three cylinders, the adhesive factor might be reduced to 3. The admission period is restricted to a percentage of the piston stroke. A fall in brake pipe air pressure causes a brake application on each vehicle whilst a restoration of pressure causes the brake to release. A triple valve on each vehicle monitors the pressure in the brake pipe.
When pressure falls, the distributor allows air from an auxiliary reservoir on the vehicle to pass to the brake cylinders to apply the brake.
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Merchants in antiquity[ edit ] Phoenician trade routes Merchants have existed as long as business, trade and commerce have been conducted. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Phoenecia and Rome. These markets typically occupied a place in the town’s centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place.
Jaime Cortinas, 42, shot his two daughters, Janet Cortinas-Duran, eight, and Jasmine Duran-Cortinas, 11, before turning the gun on himself after he set his Land Rover on fire in a shootout with police. Now, the girls have been pictured for the first time since their murders after memorials took place in Gresham, Oregon. A GoFundMe was set up for the family in honor of the two girls. The deadly altercation with police took place after Jaime’s wife frantically called informing officials that her husband had kidnapped her daughters on Wednesday morning.
When an officer spotted his dark Land Rover at a gas station parking lot and approached Jaime, the man fired at him with a handgun before setting his SUV on fire with his children inside the car. The Gresham Police Department said on Thursday that an autopsy confirmed that Jaime had shot his daughters Janet and Jasmine multiple times before the blaze.
Officers smashed the car window to try to pull the children out of the back seat, but both were already dead. Jaime died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound from his. Jaime Cortinas, 42, shot dead his daughters Janet Cortinas-Duran, eight, and Jasmine Duran-Cortinas, 11, before setting his SUV pictured on fire and turning the gun on himself No officers were shot but multiple suffered minor injuries while breaking into the burning SUV, including strains, burns and smoke inhalation The girls’ mother reported to police that her husband was armed, dangerous and suicidal, and had disappeared with their daughters early that morning, according to authorities.
Monday, September 18, 2017
It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work Comrie’s Greenwich setup had not been permanent. In late , Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [ 17 ].
To illustrate with a quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [ 34 ], “We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You’d do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
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Man burglarized at least 18 businesses, churches Roberto Baney-Mateos, 26, was wanted by Salem police in connection with a series of burglaries, including a break-in at La Bonita Bakery on Portland Road, where thousands of dollars were stolen on Nov. Whitney Woodworth, Statesman Journal Published: Roberto Baney-Mateos, 26, was wanted by Salem police in connection with a series of burglaries, including a break-in at La Bonita Bakery on Portland Road, where thousands of dollars were stolen on Nov.
Security guards spotted Baney-Mateos inside a business complex yard around 8: Salem police spokesman Lt. As officers closed in on him, Baney-Mateos fled into an adjoining business yard. A Salem police K-9 dog found him hiding in the back of a utility truck.